Ecological Threat: It forms large clonal colonies displacing native species. The rhizomes are able to survive heavy droughts. Rhizomes and seeds can be transported downstream, further spreading the plant. Seeds can germinate even after a wetland area burns. It contains glycosides, making it toxic to grazing animals. No birds are known to disperse the seeds of this plant. Caution should be used when hand-pulling, as it can cause skin irritation.
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